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Gemini Lithium

100% ownership

The Gemini Lithium Project (“Gemini”) consists of 582 unpatented lode and placer claims totaling approximately 5,760 acres (2,390 hectares) and located in the Lida Valley approximately 6 miles (10 kilometres) east of the town of Lida, Nevada. Nevada Sunrise acquired Gemini by claim staking in 2015 with no applicable royalties and currently holds a 100% interest in the project. The Company expanded the size of the project by staking new unpatented placer claims in March 2022 and 288 unpatented lode claims in April 2022. Gemini is situated adjacent to the Gold Point Solar Energy Zone, a Bureau of Land Management land reserve set aside for solar and wind power generation projects until 2033. 

Gemini Lithium Project, Lida Valley, Nevada

The Lida Valley is a flat, arid basin with a similar geological setting to the better-known Clayton Valley basin where Albermarle Corporation operates the Silver Peak lithium brine mine, which has operated continuously since 1966. In 2015, Nevada Sunrise adopted an exploration strategy targeting desert basins, or playas, that exhibit similar geological and geophysical characteristics to the Clayton Valley basin where brines containing economic contents of lithium are known to accumulate in faults and porous lithologic traps in sub-basins.  Such sub-basins can be delineated by gravity surveys that detect strong gravity lows. 

Future exploration at Gemini is complemented by the Company’s 80.09 acre/feet/year water right, a pre-requisite for the exploration and development of lithium brine projects in Nevada. 

Previous ground gravity surveys in the Lida Valley area were widely-spaced and limited in scope, however in 2012 and 2013 a geological research team led by Dr. John Oldow of the University of Texas, Dallas collected approximately 500 gravity measurements along 7 transects crossing the Lida Valley.  The detailed gravity survey results indicated significant gravity lows within two, faulted sub-basins approximately 7 kilometres (4.5 miles) apart, each interpreted to be hundreds of metres deep. Nevada Sunrise made the decision to acquire claims covering the available land after reviewing the geophysical results in conjunction with favourable local geology, namely late Miocene felsic volcanic tuffs adjacent to Gemini. These rocks provide the source of lithium for trapped, lithium-rich saline ground-waters (brine) within the sub-basins. Drill pads, access roads and an active drilling permit are in place at Gemini.
 
Two separate follow-up TDEM surveys over Gemini carried out in early 2016 by Nevada Sunrise each detected conductive zones within the sub-basins interpreted to represent conductive brines at depth located well below the non-conductive sediments at and near surface.  

TDEM Survey at Gemini, 2016

A conductive layer 150-250 metres deep appears to cover most of Gemini and several isolated strong conductive zones were interpreted at depths from 400 to 600 metres. The conductive layers and zones are indicative of brine solutions in porous aquifers and traps within each sub-basin.

Gemini Project Geophysical Interpretation July 2016

2022 Drilling Program

On March 15, 2022, Nevada Sunrise announced the commencement of the inaugural drilling program at Gemini of up to 2,020 feet (615,85 metres) of reverse circulation drilling in up to two holes to test targets for lithium brines and lithium-in-sediments.

On April 21, 2022, the Company announced that lithium mineralization had been intersected over significant widths in the 2022 drilling program.  Two boreholes were completed for a total of 2,020 feet (615.85 metres) on drill sites located within a defined gravity low that hosts conductive layers detected by historical ground time-domain electromagnetic (“TDEM”) surveys (see Figure 1 below).

The results from the first two boreholes at Gemini represent a new discovery of lithium-bearing sediments in the western Lida Valley, which has not been historically drill tested for lithium mineralization. Lithium-in-sediment values were significant:

  • GEM22-01 averaged 1,203.41 parts per million (“pp”) lithium over 580 feet (176.83 metres), from 320 to 900 feet (97.56 to 274.39 metres) including 1.578.19 ppm lithium over 300 feet (91.46 metres) from 480 to 780 feet (146 to 237.8 metres).
     
  • Gem22-02 averaged 1,101.73 parts per million (“ppm”) lithium over 730 feet (222.56 metres) from 390 to 1,120 feet (118.90 to 341 metres), including 2,217.69 ppm lithium over 130 feet (39.63 metres) from 990 to 1,120 feet ( 301.83 to 341.46 metres) and 3,304 ppm lithium over 50 feet (15.24 metres) from 1,070 to 1.120 feet (326.22 to 341.46 metres)

 Figure 1: TDEM Survey Results Showing Conductive Zones and Drill Holes at Gemini

 

Drilling at Gemini Project - March 2022

 

Table 1. Final analytical results from boreholes GEM22-01 and GEM22-02

GEM22-01 Lithium Mineralization

Sample Interval

Thickness

Lithium
(Weighted average in ppm)

Feet

Metres

Feet

Metres

From

To

From

To

   

320 

900 

97.56

274.39

580 

176.83

1,203.41 

including

 

480 

780 

146.34

237.8

300 

91.46

1,578.19 

GEM22-02 Lithium Mineralization

390 

1120 

118.90

341.46

730 

222.56

1,101.73 

including

 

490 

560 

149.39

170.73

70 

21.34

1,227.15 

990 

1120 

301.83

341.46

130 

39.63

2,217.69 

including

 

1070 

1120 

326.22

341.46

50 

15.24

3,304.34 

1. Samples are a composite of material collected from the rotary splitter in the RC drilling rig, which produces a continuous, representative 3 to 5 kilogram sample for each sample interval.

 

Fig. 2: Gemini Lithium Project 2022 TDEM Survey Plan

The 2022 geophysical survey was designed to outline the possible lateral extent of the conductive, lithium-bearing clay layers within a historical gravity low that were intersected in drillholes GEM22-01 and GEM22-02. A total of 13.0 line kilometres were carried out in three new survey lines as shown in Figure 1. 

The TDEM moving loop survey employed 400 metre by 400 metre loops to collect data along new survey lines parallel to the 2016 survey lines, which had detected a highly-conductive layer (see Figure 2 above). The northern and western limits of the conductive clay layer at Gemini were historically not well-defined and the 2022 survey results have added to the Company’s geological knowledge of the conductive zones. In July 2022, and based on those results, Nevada Sunrise submitted an amended drilling plan to the Bureau of Land Management (“BLM”) for the permitting of new drill targets at Gemini. The expanded permit was received in August 2022, for up to 12 boreholes..

Gemini Lithium Project - Conductive Zone with 2022 Drillholes and Lithium Values

On June 6, 2022, Nevada Sunrise announced that highly-significant values of lithium were detected in water samples collected from boreholes GEM22-01 and GEM22-02, drilled in the inaugural 2022 drilling program. The water samples from both boreholes contain dissolved lithium in a calcium/magnesium carbonate-type brine that was not easily recognized on site during the drilling program due to the presence of high levels of suspended solids.

Water samples from borehole GEM-22-01 averaged 327.7 milligrams per litre (“mg/L”) lithium over 220 feet (67.07 metres) from 600 to 820 feet with a peak value of 519 mg/L lithium. Water samples from borehole GEM22-02 returned an average of 116.28 mg/L lithium over 460 feet (140.24 metres) from 600 to 1,120 feet (201.22 to 341.46 metres) with a peak value of 286.0 mg/L lithium (see Table 1 below). 

Table 1:  Results of Lithium-in-Water Samples for boreholes GEM22-01 & GEM22-02

Borehole GEM22-01 Water Sample Results

Interval

Thickness

Average Lithium (mg/L)

From

To

From

To

Feet

Metres

600

820

182.93

250.00

220

67.07

327.7

including

600

640

182.93

195.12

40

12.20

465.0

and

720

740

219.51

225.61

20

6.1

437.0

and

760

800

231.71

243.90

40

12.2

487.5

Borehole GEM22-02 Water Sample Results

Interval

Thickness

Average Lithium (mg/L)

From

To

From

To

Feet

Metres

660

1120

201.22

341.46

460

140.24

116.28

including

660

680

201.22

207.32

20

6.10

274.0

and

880

900

268.29

274.39

20

6.10

284.0

and

1060

1120

323.17

341.46

60

18.29

195.93

including

1100

1120

335.37

341.46

20

6.10

286.0

Notes: 

  1. Lithium concentrations in GEM22-01 water samples ranged from 137 mg/L to 519 mg/L in the 220 foot (67.07 metres) thick zone from 600 to 820 feet (182.93 to 250 metres).
  2. The 60-foot zone sampled from 820 to 880 feet (250 to 268.3 metres) in GEM22-01 contained no significant lithium values.
  3. Lithium concentrations in GEM22-02 water samples ranged from “not detected” to 286mg/L in the 460- foot (140.24 metre) thick zone from 660 to 1120 feet (201.22 to 341.46 metres).
     

Nevada Sunrise is evaluating the 2022 water and sediment sampling results in detail. These analytical results and preliminary research by the Company suggest that the Gemini lithium deposit is an example of the claystone deposit model situated in a closed arid basin, similar to lithium deposits found in the Clayton Valley and at other sedimentary-hosted lithium deposits in Nevada. 

Phase 2 Drilling Program

On August 15, 2022, Nevada Sunrise announced the receipt of an amended exploration permit from the BLM for Gemini. The amended permit increases the number of proposed borehole locations to twelve (12), which includes the two successful boreholes that intersected significant lithium values drilled during the Company’s maiden drilling program in March and April 2022.

Nevada Sunrise engaged O’Keefe Drilling Company of Butte, Montana as the drilling contractor for the program, which commenced on October 19, 2022. Up to six boreholes are planned In Phase 2 for an estimated total of 8,000 feet (2,439 metres) of drilling. The exploration goals for the drilling program are: (1) test lithium-bearing brine and sediments at greater depths than previous boreholes GEM22-01 and GEM22-02, and (2) determine the lateral extent of lithium-mineralized brine and sediments identified in the two previous Gemini drill holes. Drill hole locations may be amended or revised during the Phase 2 program as results warrant.

On December 6, 2022, Nevada Sunrise announced the receipt of preliminary geochemical analyses for borehole GEM22-03 at Gemini. In the upper part of the hole, the Company intersected lithium-bearing sediments in the characteristic lithium-bearing green clay that was encountered in the first two holes (GEM22-01 and GEM22-02) drilled in the spring of 2022. Drilling of GEM22-03 is ongoing with the hole depth currently at approximately 1,380 feet (420.73 metres).


Geophysical TDEM Model Showing Conductive Zones and 2022 Drill Holes at Gemini

Borehole GEM22-03 was collared at a location approximately 0.47 miles (0.76 kilometres) north of GEM22-01 and 1.14 miles (1.83 kilometres) north of GEM22-02.  Sampling of the lithium-bearing green clay layer began at 300 feet (91.46 metres), after the drill passed through the surficial alluvium (sand and gravel) layer, and 22 representative spot samples were collected from various intervals in the hole to provide an initial geochemical assessment of the green clay layer to a depth of 810 feet (246.95 metres). The 22 representative samples were submitted on a rush basis to American Assay Laboratories in Sparks, Nevada, and produced results ranging from 615 parts per million (“ppm”) lithium to 1,450 ppm lithium (see Table 1).

Table 1.  Initial analytical results from borehole GEM22-03

Feet Metres Lithology Description Lithium
(weighted avg.
ppm)
310 94.51 Dark gray-green clay, medium firm 1101
380 115.85 Gray-green clay, sticky and soft 1005
390 118.9 Gray-green clay, sticky and soft 949
400 121.95 Gray-green clay, sticky and soft 1084
430 131.1 Gray-green clay, medium firm 1298
440 134.15 Gray-green clay, medium firm 1336
480 146.34 Gray-green clay, soft, trace pyrite 1406
490 149.39 Gray-green clay, soft, trace pyrite 1450
560 170.73 Gray-green clay, sticky and soft 1188
580 176.83 Mixed siliceous chips and gray-green clay 1000
590 179.88 Mixed siliceous chips and gray-green clay 1278
610 185.98 Mixed gray chips and light gray hard clay 898
620 189.02 Mixed siliceous chips, medium gray hard clay, and dark gray-green firm clay 1044
640 195.12 Dark gray-green clay, firm 702
660 201.22 Dark gray-green clay, firm 947
680 207.32 Mixed medium gray, firm, crumbly clay and dark gray-green clay 632
690 210.37 Mixed soft dark gray-green clay and fine lithic tuff 680
760 231.71 Light gray-green fine lithic tuff with quartz eyes and trace biotite 623
770 234.76 Mixed lithic tuff and gray-brown medium firm clay 725
780 237.8 Gray-brown, medium firm clay 777
790 240.85 Medium gray-green ash to fine lithic tuff. Trace pyrite/sulfide 615
810 246.95 Mixed medium to dark gray-green clay 684

A total of 143 additional sediment samples were collected from hole GEM22-03 representing the clay zones intersected to date between 300 and 1,280 feet (91.46 to 390.24 metres) and those samples have been submitted to ALS Group USA in Reno, Nevada.

Groundwater samples exhibiting elevated conductivity and total dissolved solids have been collected in several zones beginning at 500 feet (152.44 metres) with the most recent groundwater sample collected at 1,360 feet (414.63 metres). Twenty-three groundwater samples were submitted to Western Environmental Laboratories in Reno, Nevada for analysis.

The Phase 2 drilling program is designed to expand the footprint of the lithium mineralization encountered to date. Following a holiday break in the third week of December, drilling is planned to continue into the First Quarter of 2023. To date, high-grade lithium-bearing sediments have been intersected over a strike length of 1.14 miles (1.83 kilometres) and the current geophysical model suggests the presence of many highly-prospective drill targets at Gemini.

Sampling and Analytical QA/QC and Statement of Qualified Person

Sediment samples were shipped to American Assay and to ALS Global USA. The rush samples reported in this document were analyzed at American Assay utilizing a multi-element ICP-MS method. The additional samples reported in this document were processed by ALS on a standard turn-around and analyzed with similar multi-element ICP-MS methods. Specifically, the analytical method involves aqua regia digestion of the sample followed by the inductively coupled plasma (ICP) technique to ionize the sample, and spectrometry to determine elemental concentrations. Duplicates, field blanks, and certified reference standards were inserted at regular intervals in the sample stream to ensure accuracy of the analytical method.

The scientific and technical information regarding Gemini has been reviewed and approved by Robert M. Allender, Jr., CPG, RG, SME, a Qualified Person for Nevada Sunrise as defined in National Instrument 43-101 – Standards of Disclosure for Mineral Projects.


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